Ways of Acquiring Resistance

Bacteria adapt all possible ways to survive when exposed to drugs. Depending upon the type of bacteria (gram positive/ gram negative) the approaches vary. The most common of these in general include:

Not permitting the drug to enter

  • Either by closing porin channels
  • My making alteration in outer membrane proteins to reduce permeability
  • By secreting extracellular enzymes to deactivate the drug

By secreting intracellular enzymes for deactivation of drug

  • Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases secretion
  • Aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme secretion
  • Efflux the drug out of the bacterial cell
  • By making biofilms formation (when single bacteria or a small population is under threat they colonize and form a protective layer around them, called biofilm)
  • By altering the binding sites of drug
  • By transferring resistant genetic material to neighboring non-resistant microbes

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