AMR is a result of the non-performance of drugs not only on humans but also on animals and flora. The ever-rising use of toxic chemicals in soaps, detergents, agriculture chemicals, the untreated lab waste from veterinary care centers, hospital discharges, unhygienic practices, irrational use, easy availability of antibiotic drugs in certain parts of the world and other unaccounted exposures all contribute to the spread of resistance. The sources are beyond control. All this cumulative unwanted exposure of drugs/ chemicals to pathogens is so enormous that microbes over smart the development cycle of new drugs.
Therefore, quantifying the global economic impact of AMR is not simple, however, a conservative estimate of the total economic output loss if resistance is left unchecked is around $100 trillion globally by 2050. It is safe to say that if immediate actions are not taken, it will lead to a pre-antibiotic era where common infections will kill again. Different types of bacteria are resistant to different classes of antibiotics. while some bacteria are resistant to all classes of antibiotics. Such multi-drug resistance poses the greatest threats.
Resistance is a greater problem in low and middle-income countries, primarily due to the easy availability and overuse of antibiotics. Reports suggest that only 13 million people who need antibiotics have access to them as compared to 27 million people who get antibiotics unnecessarily.
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